Classification of documents
Usually, all documents are classified for various purposes for information processing purposes. The scientific classification of documents is rather confusing as they have a diverse and multifaceted internal structure. Mostly classified according to the following features: the content of the document, its purpose, the method of recording the information.
It is clear that the classification of documents is their division into certain groups according to common features.
The two most common features are:
- content of the document (nature of information);
- document form (way of capturing information).
The issue of document content classification has always been topical and is now one of the best examined in this field of science. Classification is done in parallel with the emerging needs of mankind and common scientific achievements in the field of document research. The content of the document is described by four main criteria: the nature of the layout, the linguistic-terminological features (scientific, teaching, professional, popular), the type of information recorded in the document (production, official, etc.), the structure of the document (teaching order – chapters, subdivisions, etc.) . The most common feature of content is the hierarchical and subject-matter classification of documents.
Classification of documents by purpose is usually a discussion topic. Each document has specific tasks and functions in the society. For this reason, documents can be classified according to public purpose: educational, scientific, official, industrial, informational, science popular.
According to the information recording method, documents can be divided into: written (printed and manuscript), electronic, reproduced, visual, audio.
Documents are also classified into groups (systems) according to the nature of the information contained in them. For example, records record accounting, planning, statistics, material, social security, technical supply, trade, technical, and other information. There are about 20 unified document systems created, which is the shortest, most convenient, optimal, unified form of presentation of information for specific document management task.
The organizational management system usually differs from other systems (accounting, statistics, trade, etc.) because it applies to all institutions and organizations. It is evident that the system of organizational management documents has a documentary function, which is the organization of the management process. For example, the management activities of all institutions are expressed in documents processed, the proceedings of meetings, meetings, meetings, conferences are recorded in special protocols, information is transmitted by letters, and so on. In the area of frame management, unified forms of documents, such as questionnaires, presentations, orders, requests, holiday schedules, are currently used. Instead of the many documents that processed the institution’s cadres, 18 unified forms remained. Unified form documents can be used for traditional automated data processing.
According to another classification attribute – the way of capturing information – documents can be divided into visual and audiovisual.
Visual documents are usually perceived by the human eye by reading or looking at them. Visual documents are classified into texts and visual documents. Visual documents – diagrams, drawings, drawings, diagrams, photographs. Texts of visual documents can be written by hand or by computer and multiplied by certain means.
Audiovisual documents (also called phonograms) are documents that record audio information that is reproduced and transmitted by special hardware.
Audiovisual documents are documents that record audio information together with an image that is reproduced by some contemporary means or the like.
Documents are also classified by other features. Institutions and organizations usually produce so-called internal and external documents. Internal documents are written during the management process of the institution. These are various organizational documents – statutes, instructions, regulations, which describe the institution’s objectives, competence, tasks, employees’ rights and duties. Organizational documents – other legal acts laying down norms for the implementation of laws and other legal acts (regulations, statutes, rules, regulations, etc.) are approved by administrative documents.
Another important type of internal documents is the processing documents. Management documents – legal acts issued by collegial institutions, heads of institutions and other civil servants authorized by legal acts for the implementation of public or internal administration functions (resolutions, decisions, orders, ordinances, etc.). According to the document preparation requirements, the management documents are formalized on the form. The form shall be printed on a sheet of A4 or A5 paper and shall bear the following particulars: a coat of arms or a trade mark and the name of the author of the document. Managing documents may be drafted by a collegial body, a head of an institution, and a power of attorney authorized by law to authorize a servant holding a management document. The content of the management documents is taught in text, which can be divided into dots, sub-paragraphs and sub-paragraphs. The text must be concise, clear, logical. It may not contain a description of the facts and situations, the remarks, the individual references and the references to the annexes. The name mentioned for the first time in the text may not be abbreviated except where reference is made to the name of the official publication source. The end of the text of the organizational documents is indicated by a horizontal line drawn underneath the text at its center.
In addition, explanations, service reports, acts, etc. are written. These documents are not transferred to other institutions, but are used only for the internal affairs of the institution. Meanwhile, external documents exchange information, respond to requests, suggestions.
Documents are typical and individual. Typical documents are drawn up for one type of public institution (eg typical industry regulations) or for some type of work (exemplary office instructions). The content of individual documents, each time being original, is the result of a person’s or official’s creative work. Required details are formalized according to established rules.
There are also public, secret and official documents. Such documents are usually labeled “Secret”, “Use in Service”, etc., which is called a vulture. Service documents may be used by all employees of the institution or organization, but must not be published in the press or elsewhere. The addressee and the facilitator may use the secret; in the meantime, only the addressee has the right to access the content of completely secret documents.
Actual and fictitious documents are legally valid. True documents are prepared in accordance with the applicable legal norms and comply with the rules of formalization of documents. Fictitious – documents whose form and content do not correspond to reality.
In most cases, after the end of a certain year of office work, the value of the documents is checked in the institutions or organizations, during which temporary, long and indefinite storage documents are selected. Temporary storage documents are stored in institutions for up to 10 years. One type of long-term storage document is the frame documents. Unlimited storage documents are forwarded to the public storage.
In 1874, a tenth classification system for documents emerged. It was created by the President of the US Librarians Union.
All the documents were then divided into 10 systems that were later used.
Currently, the decimal system is used in libraries. It is made up of a library of files in libraries.
The standard is the established national rate to be observed.
1972 The first standard of organizational documents was published in UK since 1975. became mandatory.
The standard specifies how many components should be in the document, how many requisites, how they should be laid out, how they should be formalized, what margins, paper sheets, etc. should be.
Document standardization is a very important factor influencing productivity.
Documents are usually written on standard paper. Paper formats are divided into 2 rows – A and B. A row is the main, auxiliary B.
The paper format system is as follows. There are different sizes of paper sheets. A smaller size sheet is obtained by dividing a larger format sheet into half (curved over the long edge).
Initial A-line format A 0 is equal to 1 m2 (841 x 1189 mm).
- A 1 = 594 x 841
- A 2 = 420 x 594
- A 3 = 297 x 420
- A 4 = 210 x 297
- A 5 = 148 x 210, i.
The letter A (or B) in this case refers to the queue, and the number to the number of times the sheet of zero paper has been folded in half. For example, the A 4 format sheet is obtained by dividing the A 0 format into 4 sections.
Typewriter uses A 4 and A 5 paper:
- Documents in A4 format are written.
- A 5 format sheets are used for the same purpose in cases where the A 4 sheet is too large to write information.
- A-series paper is used not only for management but also for other documentation; it contains manuscripts for publishers and so on.
The size of the B (initial) format of auxiliary B is different. This series of paper and cardboard is usually made of binders and envelopes, catalog cards.
The paper format standard is international. The use of standard paper is related to the efficient use of copying techniques, file formation, storage in the institution and state archives.
For convenience, document unification is applied. Document unification is the unification of all documents according to the composition of information and data and the form of documents.
One of the main tasks of document unification is to identify the documents required for a specific management function.
The main types of documents are books, unpublished documents, normative technical documentation, patent documentation, audio visual documents, publications, archival documents, electronic documents, manuscripts.
All documents in the broadest sense can be divided into primary and secondary. Such a division of documents is conditional. The original document is any material medium that directly records the result of a particular activity. The secondary document is the final result of the analysis and synthesis of the original document.
A set of primary documents is the flow of primary documents in the social environment. The functioning of the documents can be described in three main stages: preparation, distribution and use of the document. All these stages are closely related. Their totality consists of document flows. There may be millions of library funds, but unused documents are not a stream.
The document flow generated is passed to the end user. Intermediaries between documents and users can be information centers, libraries, the Internet, etc. Libraries, information centers, etc. the source document flows are analyzed, processed and thus generate a flow of secondary documents. These document classifications are generally used to break down primary documents.
Secondary documents can be prepared to target users in the flow of documents or data and information.
In order to help users orient themselves in the plethora of documents, the primary documents are processed, giving them common characteristics, ie secondary documents (bibliographic review, bibliographic description, bibliographic indexes, annotation, catalogs). These documents are also called bibliographic.
In order to help the users to orient themselves in the flow of knowledge and information, the primary documents are processed by selecting theories, facts, ideas, concepts, etc., and later the secondary documents are prepared (reports, reviews, annotations).
Thus, the following primary documents can be distinguished: books, scientific reports, technical methodologies and instructions, publications and articles thereof, translations, audio visual documents, metrology and construction documentation, archival documents and manuscripts, diploma works, price lists, industrial catalogs, technical tasks, materials for conferences and seminars, standards, dissertations, mission reports, rationalization proposals, manuscripts, drawings and projects, analytical reviews, patents, research plans, orders, primary sources on the Internet.
The following secondary documents can be distinguished: information publications (encyclopaedias, dictionaries, manuals), reviews, databases, catalogs of libraries and publishing houses, journals of journals, indexes, secondary internet sources